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Interview Questions for Testing and QA job
Q: What is software quality assurance?
A: Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is oriented to *prevention*. It involves the entire software development process. Prevention is monitoring and improving the process, making sure any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed and ensuring problems are found and dealt with. Software Testing, is also oriented to *detection*. Testing involves the operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they are the combined responsibility of one group or individual. Also common are project teams, which include a mix of test engineers, testers and developers who work closely together, with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. It depends on what best fits your organization’s size and business structure.
Q: What is quality assurance?
A: Quality Assurance ensures all parties concerned with the project adhere to the process and procedures, standards and templates and test readiness reviews. QA service depends on the customers and projects. A lot will depend on team leads or managers, feedback to developers and communications among customers, managers, developers’ test engineers and testers.
Q: Processes and procedures – why follow them?
A: Detailed and well-written processes and procedures ensure the correct steps are being executed to facilitate a successful completion of a task. They also ensure a process is repeatable. Once you learn and review customer’s business processes and procedures, follow them. You can also recommend improvements and/or additions.
Q: Standards and templates – what is supposed to be in a document?
A: All documents should be written to a certain standard and template. Standards and templates maintain document uniformity. It also helps in learning where information is located, making it easier for a user to find what they want. Lastly, with standards and templates, information will not be accidentally omitted from a document. Once You has learned and reviewed your standards and templates, he will use them. He will also recommend improvements and/or additions.
Q: What is black box testing?
A: Black box testing is functional testing, not based on any knowledge of internal software design or code. Black box testing is based on requirements and functionality.
Q: What is white box testing?
A: White box testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application’s code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths and conditions.
Q: What is unit testing?
A: Unit testing is the first level of dynamic testing and is first the responsibility of developers and then that of the test engineers. Unit testing is performed after the expected test results are met or differences are explainable/acceptable.
Q: What is parallel/audit testing?
A: Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs the operations correctly.
Q: What is functional testing?
A: Functional testing is black-box type of testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Test engineers should perform functional testing.
Q: What is usability testing?
A: Usability testing is testing for ‘user-friendliness’. Clearly this is subjective and depends on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions and other techniques can be used. Test engineers are needed, because programmers and developers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.
Q: What is incremental integration testing?
A: Incremental integration testing is continuous testing of an application as new functionality is recommended. This may require that various aspects of an application’s functionality are independent enough to work separately, before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers are developed as needed. This type of testing may be performed by programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.
Q: What is integration testing?
A: Upon completion of unit testing, integration testing begins. Integration testing is black box testing. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure distinct components of the application still work in accordance to customer requirements. Test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. This activity is carried out by the test team. Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input.
Q: What is system testing?
A: System testing is black box testing, performed by the Test Team, and at the start of the system testing the complete system is configured in a controlled environment. The purpose of system testing is to validate an application’s accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed. System testing simulates real life scenarios that occur in a “simulated real life” test environment and test all functions of the system that are required in real life. System testing is deemed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable or acceptable, based on client input.
Upon completion of integration testing, system testing is started. Before system testing, all unit and integration test results are reviewed by SQA to ensure all problems have been resolved. For a higher level of testing it is important to understand unresolved problems that originate at unit and integration test levels.
Q: What is end-to-end testing?
A: End-to-end testing is similar to system testing, the *macro* end of the test scale; it is the testing a complete application in a situation that mimics real life use, such as interacting with a database, using network communication, or interacting with other hardware, application, or system.
Q: What is regression testing?
A: The objective of regression testing is to ensure the software remains intact. A baseline set of data and scripts is maintained and executed to verify that changes introduced during the release have not “undone” any previous code. Expected results from the baseline are compared to results of the software under test. All discrepancies are highlighted and accounted for, before testing proceeds to the next level.
Q: What is sanity testing?
A: Sanity testing is a cursory testing; it is performed whenever a cursory testing is sufficient to prove the application is functioning according to specifications. This level of testing is a subset of regression testing. It normally includes a set of core tests of basic GUI functionality to demonstrate connectivity to the database, application servers, printers, etc.
Q: What is performance testing?
A: Performance testing verifies loads, volumes and response times, as defined by requirements. Although performance testing is a part of system testing, it can be regarded as a distinct level of testing.
Q: What is load testing?
A: Load testing is testing an application under heavy loads, such as the testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system response time will degrade or fail.
Q: What is installation testing?
A: Installation testing is the testing of a full, partial, or upgrade install/uninstall process. The installation test is conducted with the objective of demonstrating production readiness. This test includes the inventory of configuration items, performed by the application’s System Administration, the evaluation of data readiness, and dynamic tests focused on basic system functionality. Following installation testing, a sanity test is performed when necessary.
Q: What is security/penetration testing?
A: Security/penetration testing is testing how well the system is protected against unauthorized internal or external access, or willful damage. This type of testing usually requires sophisticated testing techniques.
Q: What is recovery/error testing?
A: Recovery/error testing is testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.
Q: What is compatibility testing?
A: Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, or network environment.
Q: What is comparison testing?
A: Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to those of competitors’ products.
Q: What is acceptance testing?
A: Acceptance testing is black box testing that gives the client/customer/project manager the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to the system being released to production. The acceptance test is the responsibility of the client/customer or project manager, however, it is conducted with the full support of the project team. The test team also works with the client/customer/project manager to develop the acceptance criteria.
Q: What is alpha testing?
A: Alpha testing is testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Minor design changes can still be made as a result of alpha testing. Alpha testing is typically performed by end-users or others, not programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.
Q: What is beta testing?
A: Beta testing is testing an application when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before the final release. Beta testing is typically performed by end-users or others, not programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.
Q: What is verification?
A: Verification ensures the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer; it typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements and specifications; this can be done with checklists, issues lists, walkthroughs and inspection meetings.
Q: What is validation?
A: Validation ensures that functionality, as defined in requirements, is the intended behavior of the product; validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed.
Q: What is a walk-through?
A: A walk-through is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes.
Q: What is an inspection?
A: An inspection is a formal meeting, more formalized than a walk-through and typically consists of 3-10 people including a moderator, reader (the author of whatever is being reviewed) and a recorder (to make notes in the document). The subject of the inspection is typically a document, such as a requirements document or a test plan. The purpose of an inspection is to find problems and see what is missing, not to fix anything. The result of the meeting should be documented in a written report. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the document, before the meeting starts; most problems are found during this preparation. Preparation for inspections is difficult, but is one of the most cost-effective methods of ensuring quality, since bug prevention is more cost effective than bug detection.
Q: What is quality?
A: Quality software is software that is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and expectations and is maintainable. However, quality is a subjective term. Quality depends on who the customer is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Customers of a software development project include end-users, customer acceptance test engineers, testers, customer contract officers, customer management, the development organization’s management, test engineers, testers, salespeople, software engineers, stockholders and accountants. Each type of customer will have his or her own slant on quality. The accounting department might define quality in terms of profits, while an end-user might define quality as user friendly and bug free.
Q: What is a good code?
A: A good code is code that works, is free of bugs and is readable and maintainable. Organizations usually have coding standards all developers should adhere to, but every programmer and software engineer has different ideas about what is best and what are too many or too few rules. We need to keep in mind that excessive use of rules can stifle both productivity and creativity. Peer reviews and code analysis tools can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.
Q: What is a good design?
A: Design could mean to many things, but often refers to functional design or internal design. Good functional design is indicated by software functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable and maintainable; is robust with sufficient error handling and status logging capability; and works correctly when implemented.
Q: What is software life cycle?
A: Software life cycle begins when a software product is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. It includes phases like initial concept, requirements analysis, functional design, internal design, documentation planning, test planning, coding, document preparation, integration, testing, maintenance, updates, re-testing and phase-out.
Q: Why are there so many software bugs?
A: Generally speaking, there are bugs in software because of unclear requirements, software complexity, programming errors, changes in requirements, errors made in bug tracking, time pressure, poorly documented code and/or bugs in tools used in software development.
Q: How do You Introduce a New Software QA Process?
A: It depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk projects, a serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. For medium size organizations with lower risk projects, management and organizational buy-in and a slower, step-by-step process is required. Generally speaking, QA processes should be balanced with productivity, in order to keep any bureaucracy from getting out of hand. For smaller groups or projects, an ad-hoc process is more appropriate. A lot depends on team leads and managers, feedback to developers and good communication is essential among customers, managers, developers, test engineers and testers. Regardless the size of the company, the greatest value for effort is in managing requirement processes, where the goal is requirements that are clear, complete and
Q: Give me five common problems that occur during software development .
A: Poorly written requirements, unrealistic schedules, inadequate testing, adding new features after development is underway and poor communication.
Q: Give me five solutions to problems that occur during software development .
A: Solid requirements, realistic schedules, adequate testing, firm requirements and good communication.
Q: Do automated testing tools make testing easier?
A: Yes and no. For larger projects, or ongoing long-term projects, they can be valuable. But for small projects, the time needed to learn and implement them is usually not worthwhile. A common type of automated tool is the record/playback type. For example, a test engineer clicks through all combinations of menu choices, dialog box choices, buttons, etc. in a GUI and has an automated testing tool record and log the results. The recording is typically in the form of text, based on a scripting language that the testing tool can interpret. If a change is made (e.g. new buttons are added, or some underlying code in the application is changed), the application is then re-tested by just playing back the recorded actions and compared to the logged results in order to check effects of the change. One problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the product being tested, the recordings have to be changed so often that it becomes a very time-consuming task to continuously update the scripts. Another problem with such tools is the interpretation of the results (screens, data, logs, etc.) that can be a time-consuming task.
Q: What makes a good test engineer?
Good test engineers have a “test to break” attitude, they take the point of view of the customer, have a strong desire for quality and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers and an ability to communicate with both technical and non-technical people. Previous software development experience is also helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software development process, gives the test engineer an appreciation for the developers’ point of view and reduces the learning curve in automated test tool programming.
Q: What makes a good QA/Test Manager?
A: QA/Test Managers are familiar with the software development process; able to maintain enthusiasm of their team and promote a positive atmosphere; able to promote teamwork to increase productivity; able to promote cooperation between Software and Test/QA Engineers, have the people skills needed to promote improvements in QA processes, have the ability to withstand pressures and say *no* to other managers when quality is insufficient or QA processes are not being adhered to; able to communicate with technical and non-technical people; as well as able to run meetings and keep them focused
Q: What is the role of documentation in QA?
A: Documentation plays a critical role in QA. QA practices should be documented, so that they are repeatable. Specifications, designs, business rules, inspection reports, configurations, code changes, test plans, test cases, bug reports, user manuals should all be documented. Ideally, there should be a system for easily finding and obtaining of documents and determining what document will have a particular piece of information. Use documentation change management, if possible.
Q: What about requirements?
A: Requirement specifications are important and one of the most reliable methods of insuring problems in a complex software project is to have poorly documented requirement specifications. Requirements are the details describing an application’s externally perceived functionality and properties. Requirements should be clear, complete, reasonably detailed, cohesive, attainable and testable. A non-testable requirement would be, for example, “user-friendly”, which is too subjective. A testable requirement would be something such as, “the product shall allow the user to enter their previously-assigned password to access the application”. Care should be taken to involve all of a project’s significant customers in the requirements process. Customers could be in-house or external and could include end-users, customer acceptance test engineers, testers, customer contract officers, customer management, future software maintenance engineers, salespeople and anyone who could later derail the project. If his/her expectations aren’t met, they should be included as a customer, if possible. In some organizations, requirements may end up in high-level project plans, functional specification documents, design documents, or other documents at various levels of detail. No matter what they are called, some type of documentation with detailed requirements will be needed by test engineers in order to properly plan and execute tests. Without such documentation there will be no clear-cut way to determine if a software application is performing correctly.
Q: What is a test plan?
A: A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives, scope, approach and focus of a software testing effort. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the why and how of product validation. It should be thorough enough to be useful, but not so thorough that none outside the test group will be able to read it.
Q: What is a test case?
A: A test case is a document that describes an input, action, or event and its expected result, in order to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. A test case should contain particulars such as a…
Please note, the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application, since it requires you to completely think through the operation of the application. For this reason, it is useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle, if possible.
Q: What should be done after a bug is found?
A: When a bug is found, it needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. After the problem is resolved, fixes should be re-tested. Additionally, determinations should be made regarding requirements, software, hardware, safety impact, etc., for regression testing to check the fixes didn’t create other problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place, it should encapsulate these determinations. A variety of commercial, problem-tracking/management software tools are available. These tools, with the detailed input of software test engineers, will give the team complete information so developers can understand the bug, get an idea of its severity, reproduce it and fix it.
Q: What is configuration management?
A: Configuration management (CM) covers the tools and processes used to control, coordinate and track code, requirements, documentation, problems, change requests, designs, tools, compilers, libraries, patches, changes made to them and who makes the changes. Once you have had experience with a full range of CM tools and concepts, you can easily adapt to your software tool and process needs.
Q: What if the software is so buggy it can’t be tested at all?
A: In this situation the best bet is to have test engineers go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules and indicates deeper problems in the software development process, such as insufficient unit testing, insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, managers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.
Q: How do you know when to stop testing?
A: This can be difficult to determine. Many modern software applications are so complex and run in such an interdependent environment, that complete testing can never be done. Common factors in deciding when to stop are…
Q: What if there isn’t enough time for thorough testing?
A: Since it’s rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application, every possible combination of events, every dependency, or everything that could go wrong, risk analysis is appropriate to most software development projects. Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. This requires judgment skills, common sense and experience. The checklist should include answers to the following questions:
Q: What if the project isn’t big enough to justify extensive testing?
A: Consider the impact of project errors, not the size of the project. However, if extensive testing is still not justified, risk analysis is again needed and the considerations listed under “What if there isn’t enough time for thorough testing?” do apply. The test engineer then should do “ad hoc” testing, or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis.
Q: What can be done if requirements are changing continuously?
A: Work with management early on to understand how requirements might change, so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance. It is helpful if the application’s initial design allows for some adaptability, so that later changes do not require redoing the application from scratch. Additionally, try to…
Q: What if the application has functionality that wasn’t in the requirements?
A: It may take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected or hidden functionality, which it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. If the functionality isn’t necessary to the purpose of the application, it should be removed, as it may have unknown impacts or dependencies that were not taken into account by the designer or the customer.
If not removed, design information will be needed to determine added testing needs or regression testing needs. Management should be made aware of any significant added risks as a result of the unexpected functionality. If the functionality only affects areas, such as minor improvements in the user interface, it may not be a significant risk.
Q: How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?
A: Implement QA processes slowly over time. Use consensus to reach agreement on processes and adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures. Productivity will be improved instead of stifled. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection. Panics and burnout will decrease and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort. At the same time, attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient, minimize paperwork, promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting, minimize time required in meetings and promote training as part of the QA process. However, no one, especially talented technical types, like bureaucracy and in the short run things may slow down a bit. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed, but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calming of irate customers.
Q: What if an organization is growing so fast that fixed QA processes are impossible?
A: This is a common problem in the software industry, especially in new technology areas. There is no easy solution in this situation, other than…
Q: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?
A: A well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application’s objects. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design.
Q: Why do you recommended that we test during the design phase?
A: Because testing during the design phase can prevent defects later on. I recommend we verify three things…
Q: What testing roles are standard on most testing projects?
A: Depending on the organization, the following roles are more or less standard on most testing projects: Testers, Test Engineers, Test/QA Team Lead, Test/QA Manager, System Administrator, Database Administrator, Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager.
Q: What is a Test/QA Team Lead?
A: The Test/QA Team Lead coordinates the testing activity, communicates testing status to management and manages the test team.
Q: What is a Test Engineer?
A: A Test Engineer is an engineer who specializes in testing. Test engineers create test cases, procedures, scripts and generate data. They execute test procedures and scripts, analyze standards of measurements, evaluate results of system/integration/regression testing. They also…
Q: What is a Test Build Manager?
A: Test Build Managers deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application’s software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Test Build Manager.
Q: What is a System Administrator?
A: Test Build Managers, System Administrators, Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application’s software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a System Administrator.
Q: What is a Database Administrator?
A: Database Administrators, Test Build Managers, and System Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application’s software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Database Administrator.
Q: What is a Technical Analyst?
A: Technical Analysts perform test assessments and validate system/functional test requirements. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Technical Analyst.
Q: What is a Test Configuration Manager?
A: Test Configuration Managers maintain test environments, scripts, software and test data. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Test Configuration Manager.
Q: What is a test schedule?
A: The test schedule is a schedule that identifies all tasks required for a successful testing effort, a schedule of all test activities and resource requirements.
Q: What is software testing methodology?
A: One software testing methodology is a three step process of…
This methodology can be used and molded to your organization’s needs. We believe that using this methodology is important in the development and ongoing maintenance of his customers’ applications.
Q: What is the general testing process?
A: The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes the creation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests.
Q: How do you create a test strategy?
A: The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test team analyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. The test plan may include test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment.
Inputs for this process:
Outputs for this process:
Q: How do you create a test plan/design?
A: Test scenarios and/or cases are prepared by reviewing functional requirements of the release and preparing logical groups of functions that can be further broken into test procedures. Test procedures define test conditions, data to be used for testing and expected results, including database updates, file outputs, report results. Generally speaking…
Inputs for this process:
Outputs for this process:
Q: How do you execute tests?
A: Execution of tests is completed by following the test documents in a methodical manner. As each test procedure is performed, an entry is recorded in a test execution log to note the execution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncovered any defects. Checkpoint meetings are held throughout the execution phase. Checkpoint meetings are held daily, if required, to address and discuss testing issues, status and activities.
Inputs for this process:
Outputs for this process:
A: Many people and organizations are confused about the difference between quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and testing. They are closely related, but they are different concepts.
But all these three are useful to manage risks of developing and managing software.
QA activities ensure that the process is defined and appropriate. Methodology and standards development are examples of QA activities. A QA review would focus on the process elements of a project – e.g., are requirements being defined at the proper level of detail.
QC activities focus on finding defects in specific deliverables – e.g., are the defined requirements the right requirements
Testing is one example of a QC activity, but there are others such as inspections
The difference is that QA is process oriented and QC is product oriented.
Testing therefore is product oriented and thus is in the QC domain. Testing for quality isn’t assuring quality, it’s controlling it.
Quality Assurance makes sure you are doing the right things, the right way.
Quality Control makes sure the results of what you’ve done are what you expected.
Q. When to go for Manual testing and when to go for Automated testing?
A: Automated test tools are powerful aids to improving the return on the testing investment when used wisely. Some tests inherently require an automated approach to be effective, but others must be manual. In addition, automated testing projects that fail are expensive and politically dangerous. How can we recognize whether to automate a test or run it manually, and how much money should we spend on a test?
When Test Automation Makes Sense
Let’s start with the tests that ideally are automated. These include:
Reasons to Be Careful with Automation
Automated testing is a huge investment, one of the biggest that organizations make in testing. Tool licenses can easily hit six or seven figures. Neophytes can’t use most of these tools—regardless of what any glossy test tool brochure says—so training, consulting, and expert contractors can cost more than the tools themselves. Then there’s maintenance of the test scripts, which generally is more difficult and time consuming than maintaining manual test cases.
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